INFORMATICA, 2004, Vol. 15, No . one particular, 127–142 2004 Start of Math and Informatics, Vilnius
High Ability Data Hiding in JPEG-Compressed Images
Hsien-Wen TSENG, Chin-Chen CHANG
Section of Laptop Science and Information Engineering National Chung Cheng College or university Chaiyi, Taiwan 621, L. O. C. e-mail: hwtseng,ccc @cs. ccu. edu. tw Received: Drive 2003 Summary. The JPEG image is among the most popular ﬁle format pertaining to digital photos. However , up to the present period, there seems to had been very few data hiding tactics taking the JPEG image into consideration. In this daily news, we shall offer a new high potential data hiding method based on JPEG. The proposed method employs a capacity desk to estimate the number of pieces that can be hidden in each DCT component so that signiﬁcant effects in the stego-image can be prevented. The capacity stand is derived from the JPEG default quantization desk and the Individual Visual System (HVS). Then, the adaptive least-signiﬁcant bit (LSB) substitution technique is employed to process each quantized DCT coefﬁcient. The proposed info hiding technique enables us to control the level of sneaking in capacity simply using a capacity component. According to our experimental effects, our new scheme is capable of an impressively high sneaking in capacity of around 20% of the compressed image size with small noticeable destruction of image quality. Keywords and phrases: JPEG, info hiding, steganography, HVS, Jpeg–Jsteg, LSB substitution.
1 . Advantages Image, audio tracks, video, and many other kinds of info are at present mostly passed from person to person or from place to place within a digital contact form. It is often desirable to add data in the digital contents for copyright control and authentication, or for secret data concealing. Data-embedding tactics designed to take care of such responsibilities are commonly classiﬁed as watermarking or info hiding techniques in accordance with the functionalities. Watermarking techniques tend to be further divided into two teams: robust watermarking methods and fragile watermarking methods. In robust watermarking methods, the hidden data remains powerful against manipulations from virtually any possible resources including hostile ones. Consequently such strategies are usually developed to protect copyright. On the other hand, delicate watermarking strategies are usually made to easily get broken so that common articles processing functions, if there are any in any way, can be found. Therefore , such strategies are good intended for tampering recognition and authentication. As for those classiﬁed as data hiding techniques, they are occasionally called steganographical methods, where the secret communication blends in a common digital content, so that eavesdroppers will not have any proven fact that the secret communication is there, and so they will not have the slightest
H. -W. Tseng, C. -C. Alter
intention of trying to break the safeguard. Under such circumstances, sturdiness seems to be significantly less stringent, and the major problems here are the embedding ability and invisibility. In other words, a great data hiding method needs to be one that can easily embed all the data as is possible, and the perceptual distortion in the digital articles after the sneaking in procedure must be as little as feasible. Current options for the sneaking in of data into the cover photo fall into two categories: spatial-based schemes (Adelson, 1990; truck Schyndel ainsi que al., year 1994; Wang ainsi que al., 2001) and transform-based schemes (Cox et al., 1997; Wolfgang et approach., 1999; Xia et al., 1997). Spatial-based schemes add the data into the pixels of the cover image directly, while transform-based strategies embed your data into the cover image simply by modifying the coefﬁcients in a transform website, such as the Discrete-Cosine Transform (DCT). In this newspaper, we can focus after data covering in the DCT domain along with quantized DCT coefﬁcients. We shall embed your data into a JPEG (Pennebaker and Mitchell, 1993) compressed image, for most digital images are stored and transmitted in the...
References: Adelson, E. (1990). Digital Sign Encoding and Decoding Device. U. T. Patent, Number 4939515. Alter, C. C., T. S. Chen and L. Z. Chung (2002). A steganographic method based upon JPEG and quantization stand modiﬁcation. Info Sciences, 141, 123–138. Cox, I. J., J. Kilian, F. Big t. Leighton and T. Shamoon (1997). Protect spread variety watermarking pertaining to multimedia. IEEE Trans. Image Processing, 6(12), 1673–1687. Daly, S. (1994). A visual version for optimizing the design of graphic processing methods. In Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Photo Processing, Austin tx, Texas, U. S. A., Nov., Volume. II. pp. 16–20. KKLK Encryption Common (DES), Countrywide Bureau of Standards (U. S. ) (1977). Federal Information Finalizing Standards Newsletter, 46, Countrywide Technical Data Service, Springﬁeld, VA. Meeks, N., and S. Jajodia (1998). Steganalysis of pictures created using current steganography computer software. In Proceedings of Information Hiding Workshop, Portland, Oregon, USA, April, LNCS 1525. pp. 273–289. Hung, A. C. (1993). PVRG–JPEG CODEC, Technological Report, Portable Video Exploration Group, Stanford University. Kobayashi, H., Con. Noguchi and H. Kiya (1999). A procedure for embedding binary data into JPEG bitstreams. IEICE Trans. Information and Systems, J83-D-II, 1469–1476. Noguchi, Y., L. Kobayashi and H. Kiya (2000). A method of extracting inserted binary info from JPEG bitstreams employing standard JPEG decoder. In Proceedings of IEEE International Conference in Image Digesting, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 10–13 Sept., Volume. 1 . pp. 577–580. Pennebaker, W., and J. Mitchell (1993). JPEG Still Image Data Compression Standard. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York. Vehicle Schyndel, R. G., A. Z. Tirkel and C. F. Osborne (1994). Searching for watermark. In Proceedings in the First IEEE International Meeting on Image Processing, Austin tx, Texas, USA, Vol. 10. pp. 86–90. Wandell, W. A. (1995). Foundations of Vision. Sinuaer, Sunderland, MA. Wang, R. Z., C. F. Lin and M. C. Lin (2001). Graphic hiding by optimal LSB substitution and genetic algorithm. Pattern Identification, 34, 671–683. Wolfgang, L. B., C. I. Podilchuk and E. J. Delp (1999). Perceptual watermarks for digital photos and video. In Proc. IEEE 87. pp. 1108–1126.
High Capacity Data Concealing in JPEG-Compressed Images
Xia, Times. G., C. G. Bongelet and G. R. Arce (1997). A multiresolution watermark for digital images. In Proceedings of IEEE Intercontinental Conference in Image Digesting, Santa Barbara, CA, 26–29 Oct 97, Vol. 3. pp. 548–551.
H. -W. Tseng received the BALONEY degree in computer scientific research and data engineering from Tamkang University, Taipei County, Taiwan, in year 1986, and his MS degree in computer research and info engineering from National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, 23 years ago. Since 1989 to 2000 he worked as a computer industrial engineer. He is presently working toward to the PhD degree in computer technology and info engineering in National Chung Cheng University, Chaiyi, Taiwan. His study interests incorporate image processing, data concealing, and mistake resilient code. C. -C. Chang was born in Taichung, Taiwan, upon Nov. doze, 1954. He received his BS degree in applied mathematics in 1977 and his MS degree in computer system and decision science more than three decades ago from Nationwide Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan. This individual received his PhD level in computer engineering more than 20 years ago from National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan. Coming from 1983 to 1989, he was among the faculty of Institue of Used Mathematics, Countrywide Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan. Seeing that August 1989, he performed as a teacher of Start of Laptop Science and Information Executive at National Chung Cheng University, Chaiyi, Taiwan. Dr . Chang is known as a fellow of IEEE and a member of Chinese Language Computer Society, Chinese Institute of Engineers of Republic of China, and Phi Tau Phi Culture of Republic of China and tiawan. His reaserch interests include computer cryptography, data engineering, and image compression.
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H. -W. Tseng, C. -C. Alter
Efektyvus duomenu sl˙ pimas JPEG kompresijoje e
Hsien-Wen TSENG, Chin-Chen CHANG
JPEG yra vienas iš populiariausiu skaitmeniniu vaizdu failu formatu. Taˇ iau iki šiol buvo c e pasi¯ lyti vien keli duomenu sl˙ pimo (steganograﬁjos) metodai, naudojantys JPEG formata. Straipu e snyje pateikiamas naujas efektyvus duomenu sl˙ pimo metodas, pagristas JPEG. Šis metodas ree miasi našumo lentele, speziell pagalba ivertinama, kiek bitu galima pasl˙ pti kiekvienoje DCT komponent˙ je, neiškreipiant vaizdo. Našumo lentel˙ išvedama iš JPEG kvantavimo lentel˙ s ventosear spalvu at the e elizabeth modelio HVS. Po to naudojamas adaptyvus mažiausiai reikšminio bito pakeitimo algoritmas, perskaiˇ iuojant DCT koeﬁcientus. Šitoks metodas našumo faktoriaus d˙ ka leidžia valdyti vaizdo c elizabeth c u kokybe. Rezultatai, patikrinti eksperimentiniais skaiˇ iavimais, rodo si¯ lomo algoritmo efektyvuma.